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Transgenic Mouse Models

Transgenic mice are mouse models that have been altered by the stable insertion of DNA called transgenes. The inserted transgenic sequence can be derived from mouse or another species such as human for the purpose of studying specific gene function in vivo.

Precise and predictable gene targeting, only with ingenious.

At ingenious, we utilize precision gene targeting to generate your transgenic mouse. Our proprietary technologies allow for shorter production timelines and reduced costs when compared to other targeting methods, without compromising performance and quality.

The following transgenic mouse model options are available:

Transgenic Knockin to Your Gene of InterestSafe-Harbor Transgenic Knockin
Express Cre, a reporter gene, or any sequence using your target gene’s promoterDrive expression of a cDNA using a ubiquitous or tissue-specific promoter
 Express a human cDNA in place of a mouse geneConditional cDNA overexpression, which you control using tissue-specific Cre lines
Express a modified version of a mouse gene to add a tag sequence or extra functional domainDrug-inducible overexpression, controlled by administering doxycycline
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Transgenic mice have proven to be an invaluable research tool for studying human disease. With over 20 years of transgenic mouse model production experience, ingenious has the expertise to get your model done right the first time without any compromises.

Transgenic mice from ingenious are precisely targeted to create the model you need.
Faster production and lower prices.
Delivery of your germline-confirmed model is fully guaranteed.

How much are transgenic mice?

Your research is unique and so will be your mouse model. We determine cost based on project details. Contact us today for a customized price quote.

What are transgenic mice used for?

Transgenic mice are utilized for an incredibly diverse range of experiments because this model type is so versatile. They allow researchers to model human disease, test drugs in a controlled manner, or highlight gene function. Transgenic mice can be crossed to other lines to expand experimental possibilities.

Using gene targeting to specifically target transgene insertion enables placement of your genetic construct at an exact location. Anything from the most faithful reporter line to a line for drug-inducible overexpression can be created using a transgenic knockin strategy.

Transgenic Mice in Cancer Research

Transgenic Mouse Models in Neuroscience

Are knockout mice transgenic?

Well, yes and no. Many scientists use the term “transgenic mouse” as a general term referring to a mouse whose genome contains an inserted piece of DNA which could have originated from the genome of a mouse or another species. This term tends to be used whether the piece of DNA was inserted in a random or targeted way, and whether it creates a knockout of a gene or not. But if you look at the details and differences of the technologies used to make mouse models, you may find the term “transgenic” is better suited for non-specific approaches used to insert a transgene such as pronuclear injection versus specific targeting approaches used to knockout a gene such as homologous recombination in ES cells or embryos.

Download Our Free Quick Guide: Rosa26 Knockin Approaches & Targeted Transgenics

History of Untargeted Transgenic Mice

Pronuclear injection of DNA can lead to low frequency integration of the sequence into the mouse genome at random sites. Extensive development of this method in the early 1980s made the creation of random-insertion transgenic mice a routine procedure. After potential founder mice are born they must be screened for germline transmission of the desired sequence. Ideally multiple alleles will be evaluated as expression of the transgene can be affected by its genomic position, and other genes can be disrupted if the transgene inserts within their sequence. Furthermore, multiple copies can randomly integrate into the genome – it may be necessary to screen a large number of mice until the appropriate founder has been identified.

In some cases the desired DNA sequence can be injected as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to alleviate some concerns with random insertion transgenesis. BACs can hold up to 200kb of sequence, which allows for large sequences such as entire genes or large promoters to be introduced into the mouse. Inserting an entire gene including introns, exons and regulatory sequences is beneficial when the coding sequence alone may not be sufficient for proper expression. The use of BAC transgenic constructs can result in more faithful gene regulation and processing as well as the potential to perform functional and regulatory studies on multiple transcripts.

Things to keep in mind when deciding if a pronuclear injection transgenic model is right for you:

Random and unpredictable transgene integration and expression.
Variable copy numbers of the transgene.
Small transgenes may lack the cis-regulatory elements needed for proper expression [1].
BAC constructs are harder to work with and require more molecular biology expertise.
Need to screen founder mice (as opposed to ES cells). May not be 3Rs-friendly [4].

Consider Targeted Transgenics

Targeted transgenic approaches reduce or eliminate the downsides of random integration by pronuclear injection. Safe-harbor loci can be targeted by ingenious’ technologies to efficiently introduce your overexpression construct into the genome in a location where it will not interfere with other genes or be affected by the surrounding genetic environment.

To learn more about transgenic mice, speak with one of our scientific consultants today.


1) Sadelain M, Eirini PP, and Frederic DB. 2012. Safe Harbours for the Integration of New DNA in the Human Genome. Nature Reviews Cancer 12(1): 51-58.

2) Timeline for Transgenic Mice Analysis, University of Michigan

3) BAC recombineering and transgenesis, Vanderbilt University

4) What are the 3Rs? NC3RS

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